FSA deadlines can be an exciting time for account-holders who have the chance to make the most of their tax-free funds, rather than forfeiting them due to the "use it or lose it" rule.
Whether we're reminding FSA holders of upcoming deadlines, or just sharing some information about these tax-free accounts, "use it or lose it" has become a commonly used tagline around FSA deadlines. And, because we offer a growing selection of 4,000+ FSA-eligible products, we make it easier for account-holders to use their FSA funds.
For those who still might not realize the ramifications of their FSA deadline, we thought it would be a good idea to revisit one of the most common questions about FSA funds — what happens to the money that does get used by the deadline? No one likes losing money, no matter the amount. So let's explore what happens if you end up on the wrong side of the "use it or lose it" rule.
Let's cut to the chase
You may not like this answer, but your unused FSA money is forfeited back to your employer. Your employer can use these forfeitures in a variety of ways, which we'll get to in a bit. Now, before you and your coworkers march down the hall with flaming torches, realize they're not the "bad guys" in this scenario. In fact, they're on your side, and are even taking some risks to make FSAs available to employees.
See it from your company's perspective
It's true. Your employer assumes a good amount of financial risk when you sign up for an FSA. That's because even though you get to contribute to your account little by little, through regular paycheck deductions, you actually have access to the entire year's allocation, right from the beginning of the plan year.
Who's fronting that money? You guessed it, the employers. And they're on the hook for any losses if you leave the company before making a full year's contribution.
In other words, if your plan year begins on January 1, and you opt for an expensive FSA eligible procedure that week, you can use the entire year's allocation to pay for it tax-free. But if you quit a month later, your company is forced to eat that balance.
So, lost FSA funds from other employees can be used to offset these losses. It's not what your employers want to do. But it's certainly better for them than having to absorb the entire loss.
So where does it go from there?
While we certainly can't fault companies for wanting to protect themselves from potential financial losses, some choose to reinvest this "found" money into its people. No, they can't just refund you the exact amount you lost. But there are several ways they can share the wealth and ease the sting of lost funds.
Though it's rare, companies could choose to give the money back to its employees directly. It's not as simple as refunding the exact amount lost to each person with an FSA, but employers might opt to pool the collective losses and distribute back to plan participants in a fair, uniform way.
(To be clear, any money returned to participants must be distributed to ALL participants — not just those who lost funds that year.)
Companies may choose to save these excess funds and use them as a way to offset the costs and fees involved in providing FSAs. By doing so, they can make it easier to offer these accounts to employees.
In this "worst case" scenario, your money ends up used in a way we outlined above. There is good news though — your employer may offer a few options to help extend your funds and avoid losing them altogether.
Many employers offer an FSA grace period — something we've discussed quite a bit in our Learning Centers — which gives you an extra 2.5 months to use their funds from the previous plan year. For example, if your plan year ends on December 31, you have until March 15 of the following year to use those funds before risking a loss.
Another common FSA feature is the rollover option, which allows you to carry up to $570 of your FSA dollars to the following year, eliminating any last-minute rushes or lost funds.
Like we said at the beginning of the article, no one likes losing money, which is why we encourage users to create a budget and spend accordingly to meet your family's health care needs. But on the off chance you miss your FSA deadline and forfeit money back to your employer, know that there are limits on what they can do with all that money.